Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia Oeconomica <div style="text-align: justify;"> <p><em>Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia Oeconomica</em> publishes papers containing the results of original theoretical and empirical research in all the disciplines of economic sciences. Policy related and review articles are also welcome as well as organized forms of discussion on specific topics. The submitted papers should fall to one of the following 9 section of the journal: Economics, Finance, Corporate finance, Management, Marketing, Spatial economics, International economics, Statistics and econometrics, Accountancy.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </div> Lodz University Press en-US Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia Oeconomica 0208-6018 Statistical Disclosure Control Methods for Microdata from the Labour Force Survey <p>The aim of this article is to analyse the possibility of applying selected perturbative masking methods of Statistical Disclosure Control to microdata, i.e. unit‑level data from the Labour Force Survey. In the first step, the author assessed to what extent the confidentiality of information was protected in the original dataset. In the second step, after applying selected methods implemented in the <em>sdcMicro </em>package in the R programme, the impact of those methods on the disclosure risk, the loss of information and the quality of estimation of population quantities was assessed. The conclusion highlights some problematic aspects of the use of Statistical Disclosure Control methods which were observed during the conducted analysis.</p> Michał Pietrzak Copyright (c) 2020 2020-06-22 2020-06-22 3 348 7 24 10.18778/0208-6018.348.01 Seniors’ Care System as a Challenge for Local Senior Policy <p>A significant part of the activities undertaken so far under the senior policy, also at the local level, have been focused on seniors’ social (physical and educational) activation. The growing number of the oldest seniors, with limited independence, living alone in single‑person households, away from their families, will force the policy priorities to be reoriented in such a way as to develop efforts to provide different types of support and care for older citizens. The results of research carried out by different researchers confirm that the system of care for seniors with independence restrictions, based mainly on the family members support, is no longer applicable. However, finding a good solution in new conditions will be extremely difficult. First of all, due to the seniors’ preferences (the desire to spend old age in their own home, in familiar surroundings), social conditions and family relationships (singularization in old age, loosening family and social relationships, transferring social relationships into the virtual sphere inaccessible for many seniors), labor market situation (staff deficit in the care system) and public finances (the need to rationalize the growing public expenditure related to the provision of health and care services). The aim of the article is to present selected aspects of seniors’ care system organization in Poland in local territorial units’ perspective. In the article author presents the results of literature analysis of seniors’ care system in Poland, discusses the results of an interview conducted among the seniors of one of the Pomeranian communes regarding availability of care from the closest family members, as well as proposes the concept of organizing the local care system for seniors. &nbsp;</p> Anita Richert-Kaźmierska Copyright (c) 2020 2020-06-22 2020-06-22 3 348 25 43 10.18778/0208-6018.348.02 City Resilience to Population Ageing In the Context of Spatial (In)Accessibility. The Case of Poznań and Łódź <p>The ageing of the society is a serious factor affecting the prospects of urban development. Unfavourable demographic changes disturb the functioning of the urban system, thus forcing adaptive activities leading to a new state of balance in the organism of a city. The ageing of urban society requires a new look at the organisation of space in the city. The importance of planning age‑friendly cities is rising fast. Due to the low mobility of the elderly, it is important to plan their direct living environment, ensuring access to facilities or areas that meet the basic needs of this particular group of urban space users. As part of the answer to the question: to what extent the cities of Poznań and Łódź are resilient to the ageing process in spatial terms, an analysis was performed of the accessibility of green areas, sports and recreation facilities, service and commercial, cultural, healthcare facilities and public transport stops for the elderly population. This resulted in the delimitation of problem areas characterised by functional and spatial deficits and the development of the two cities’ resilience indexes to demographic changes, namely, ageing in spatial terms.</p> Ewa Lechowska Copyright (c) 2020 2020-06-22 2020-06-22 3 348 45 63 10.18778/0208-6018.348.03 Studying the Stock Market – Economic Activity Nexus in Poland with a VAR‑VECM Approach <p>The paper discusses the links between stock market performance and real economic activity and presents results of an empirical inquiry into dynamic relationships between the main stock index quoted on the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WIG) and GDP in Poland over the years 1995–2019. In many empirical studies for highly developed countries not only short‑run dynamic interactions but also a long‑run cointegrating relationship between the stock index and output have been found. Previous studies for Poland reported mainly short‑run linkages between stock returns and changes of economic activity whereas the evidence for a long‑run cointegrating relationship is still quite scarce. In this paper, the VAR‑VECM methodology with the Johansen tests for cointegration is used to study a substantially longer quarterly data interval than has been investigated so far. Research results show that stock returns Granger‑cause GDP growth with up to three‑quarters lead. The evidence for the existence of a long‑term cointegrating relationship has also been found.</p> Piotr Pietraszewski Copyright (c) 2020 2020-06-22 2020-06-22 3 348 65 89 10.18778/0208-6018.348.04 Analysis and Assessment of the ‘Working Poor’ Phenomenon among Young People in the European Union <p>The article discusses the ‘working poor’ phenomenon among young people. This phenomenon is associated with the labor market on the one hand and poverty on the other. It is an interesting object of study, because currently more and more people are threatened by poverty in the European Union, even though they are included in the basic social institution, which is the labor market. The aim of this study was to show the relationship between the work and the problem of poverty in the context of the working poor phenomenon, and the analysis and evaluation focused on determining the level and structure of the working poor among young people in the European Union. The situation of working poor can be presented thanks to the results of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions. This study aims to collect current and comparable data on the distribution of income and social integration at the transnational level in the EU, including: income and living conditions, poverty and social exclusion, education, professional activity and health, as well as childcare and housing conditions. Unfortunately, the EU‑SILC study (although regularly implemented) is not always a complete source of data, because every year other aspects of socio‑economic life are explored. Nevertheless, the information obtained from the Eurostat database and EU‑SILC studies, makes it possible to carry out comparable statistical analyzes, in this case for the working poor group. Based on the statistical analysis and assessment of the situation of young people included in the working poor group in the EU, based on Eurostat database and EU‑SILC studies, it can be stated that the problem of poor and poverty exist among them. It undermines the view that employment is a factor that counteracts poverty and that full employment is the best remedy for poverty and social exclusion.</p> Katarzyna Beata Cymbranowicz Copyright (c) 2020 2020-06-22 2020-06-22 3 348 91 112 10.18778/0208-6018.348.05 Analysis of the Health Related Quality of Life Elderly People Living in Rural Areas <p>In connection with the aging of the population and the increase in the number of people with chronic illnesses, the priority objective for health care has become not only lengthening life, but also improving quality of life in older persons, as well as maintenance of their relative independence and active participation in social life. The most important factor in determining quality of life is health. Therefore, within this concept is used the term ‘health related quality of life’ which means quality of life designated state of health, current illnesses and the natural ageing process. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the health related quality of life of elderly people living in rural areas and to identify its determinants. The group of respondents consisted 203 people aged 65 years and over living in rural areas in Małopolska. The analysis of collected research material was performed using the statistical package SPSS 19 for Windows. The level of significance for the tested the hypotheses assumed value of 0.05. Elderly people who living in rural areas showed lower health related quality of life in physical dimension than in psychological dimension. The factors that determined this assessment including: sex, age, family situation, housing and financial situation, agricultural work in the past, health status, functional state, the risk of malnutrition, the type of the support and the level of life satisfaction of respondents.</p> Anna Mirczak Copyright (c) 2020 2020-06-22 2020-06-22 3 348 113 129 10.18778/0208-6018.348.06 Models of Multiple Events in the Analysis of Subsequent Registrations in the Labour Office <p>In many fields of science, it is necessary to analyse recurrent events. In medical science, the problem is to assess the risk of chronic disease recurrence. In economic and social sciences, it is possible to analyse the time of entering and leaving the sphere of poverty, the time of subsequent guarantee or insurance claims, as well as the time of subsequent periods of unemployment. In these studies, there are different ways of defining risk intervals, i.e. the time frame over which an event is at risk (or likely to occur) for an entity. Research on registered unemployment in Poland shows a high percentage of people returning to the labour office and registering again. The aim of the article is assessment of the risk of subsequent registrations in the labour office depending on selected characteristics of the unemployed: gender, age, education, and seniority. In the study, methods of survival analysis were used. The results obtained for four models being an extension of the Cox proportional hazard model were compared. The Anderson‑Gil model does not distinguish between first and next events. The number of events that occurred is important. Two Prentince‑Williams‑Peterson conditional models and the Wei, Lin and Weissfeld models are based on the Cox stratified model. The strata are consecutive events. They differ in the way risk intervals are determined. In the analysed period, only age and education influenced the risk of multiple registrations at the Poviat Labour Office in Szczecin. Gender and seniority did not have a significant impact on this risk. The analysis performed for subsequent registrations confirmed the impact of the same features on the first subsequent registration. In general, it can be stated that the analysed characteristics of the unemployed did not have a significant impact on the second and subsequent returns to the labour office.</p> Beata Bieszk-Stolorz Copyright (c) 2020 2020-06-22 2020-06-22 3 348 131 147 10.18778/0208-6018.348.07